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Intentionalism vs functionalism holocaust essay



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argumentation directe ou indirecte dissertation - The Intentionalism vs. Functionalism debate is still a topic that has not produced a clear-cut answer, however the research backing both arguments seems to favor one side over the other. The platform of the Functionalist argument is that at the onset of World War II, Hitler and the Nazis had not decided that genocide was to be the answer to. to explain the methods by which the Holocaust developed and they have come to be known as `intentionalist' and `functionalist' respectively. I The Debate Timothy Mason developed the terms in an essay written with the aim of drawing focus away from Hitler as the sole explanation of the Holocaust. A functionalist himself, Mason held that it wasFile Size: KB. Others prefer the ‘functionalist’ position, which maintains that the Holocaust was the result of a chaotic political atmosphere, which was preyed upon by opportunists. The intentionalist position suffers greatly from a lack of adequate evidence, and consequently cannot prove . essay on unemployment in bhutan

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argumentative research paper topics for college students - Functionalism v. intentionalism is a historiographical debate about the origins of the Holocaust as well as most aspects of the Third Reich, such as foreign policy. The debate on the origins of the Holocaust centers on essentially two questions: Was there a master plan on . The Intentionalist vs functionalist - the holocaust is one of the most popular assignments among students' documents. If you are stuck with writing or missing ideas, scroll down and find inspiration in the best samples. Intentionalist vs functionalist - the holocaust is quite a rare and popular topic for writing an essay, but it certainly is in our database. Introduction Functionalism versus intentionalism is a long-lasting debate originating from the end of World War Two in It analyses the Third Reich and the way it’s leaders approached foreign policy at the time, mainly concerning the Holocaust. five paragraph essay unit

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5 steps to writing an essay - Functionalism, Intentionalism, And The Concept Of Scapegoating Excerpt from interview with Professor Dominick LaCapra Cornell University June 9, , Jerusalem Interviewer: Amos Goldberg Q- There are two large schools of thought in the historiography of the Holocaust and of Nazism: the functionalist versus the intentionalist approach. The Functionalist vs. Intentionalist Debate Historians have been attempting to uncover the true reasons behind the Holocaust since the day it ended. Since the s there has been a significant divide between two major groups of historians: those called the functionalists, and those called the intentionalists. Functionalism (or structuralism) versus intentionalism is a historiographical debate about the origins of the Holocaust as well as most aspects of the Third Reich, such as foreign policy. The debate on the origins of the Holocaust centers on essentially two questions: Was there a master plan on the part of Adolf Hitler to launch the Holocaust? romeo and juliet essay on fate and destiny

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essay scarlet letter pearl - Forget the all-nighters and find some writing inspiration with our free essay samples on any topic. It's time for you to nail your grades! Search for: Samples ☺ Crime ☺ The Holocaust: Intentionalism vs. Functionalism The Holocaust: Intentionalism vs. Functionalism. words 3 page(s). A major issue in contemporary Holocaust studies is the question of functionalism versus intentionalism. The terms were coined in a article by the British Marxist historian Timothy Mason to describe two schools of thought about the origins of the Holocaust. Michelle has a J.D. and her PhD in History. In this lesson, we'll discuss the debate between functionalism and intentionalism in Holocaust historiography, including the main question of. generation gap definition essay

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pre-school internship essay - In this essay, the two primary historiographical approaches to the Holocaust, intentionalism and functionalism, will be synthesized and reconciled with the political-scientific approaches of interpretivism and structuralism. I argue that intentionalism is essentially synonymous with interpretivism, as an approach that looks at ideas as a. Functionalist. The functionalist theory emphasizes the revolutionary nature of the Nazi State, its internal political rivalries, and the constant improvisations taken as a result of chaotic decision-making as the driving forces behind the Holocaust. (Functionalism versus intentionalism). Reading history books is not only an exercise in fact finding and date and name memorizing. Historians are important interpreters of the social world in two important ways: 2. Historians have already made an interpretation in the way stated in number 1, but they also have. critical analysis film essay

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cellulosic ethanol essay - uasdcouk.somee.com is a platform for academics to share research papers. Interpretations of the Holocaust From the mids, interpretations of Nazi Germany for the most part have been divided between two schools, which are characterised as the ‘intentionalists' and the ‘functionalists'. Intentionalists focus on Hitler and his ideology. In this essay, Mason called the followers of "the twisted road to Auschwitz"/structuralist school "functionalists" because of their belief that the Holocaust arose as part of the functioning of the Nazi state, while the followers of "the straight road to Auschwitz"/programmeist school were called "intentionalists" because of their belief that. phd thesis on employee satisfaction

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hard get 12 essay sat - Intentionalism and functionalism. The Holocaust: The Destruction of European Jewry is an adaptation of an on-campus course that has been co-taught by Murray Baumgarten, Distinguished Professor of English and Comparative Literature (Literature Department), and Peter Kenez, Professor Emeritus (History Department), for over 20 years at. The father of the functionalist approach to the Holocaust is probably Karl Schluenes who wrote a book in entitled THE TWISTED ROAD TO AUSCHWITZ, but the study that broke the solid wall of intentionalist thinking about National Socialism was undoubtedly A.J.P. Taylors' THE ORIGINS OF THE SECOND WORLD WAR that appeared more than a decade. Historians who attempt to explain how the Holocaust, one of history's most profound events, occurred divide into two major schools: the intentionalist and the functionalist. Intentionalists may be thought as those who "essentially construct a case round the decisive impact of particular individuals or occasions. professional resume writing service phoenix az

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phd thesis on employee satisfaction - Historians are often divided into categories in regard to dealing with Nazi Germany foreign policy and its relation to Hitler: 'intentionalist', and 'structuralist'. The intentionalist interpretation focuses on Hitler's own steerage of Nazi foreign policy in accordance with a clear, concise. Functionalism And The Holocaust. Paper The Final Solution Ever since the world has become aware of the Holocaust on the Jews, many historians have debated back and forth of who caused this, why this had happened, and when it was decided. Functionalists uasdcouk.somee.comionalists: The Debate Twenty Years On or Whatever Happened to Functionalism and Intentionalism? Richard Bessel University of York The Cumberland Lodge Conference of May was clearly a milestone in the historiography of the "Third Reich."' As . term paper outline tagalog

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college application essay cover letter - The two different points of view, intentionalist and structuralist (sometimes referred to as functionalist), do not satisfactorily suggest enough definite reasons for the Holocaust and there is enough evidence to make people look for a third option. 'Functionalism' is the position of those historians who admonish the intentionalists for ascribing the prime “burden of interpretation” to the will of Hitler and other prominent Nazi leaders From their perspective, a more convoluted understanding of the Third Reich entails the concern of “collective processes”, that is, the dynamic. Functionalism versus intentionalism Functionalism (or structuralism) versus intentionalism is a historiographical debate about the origins of the Holocaust as well as most aspects of the Third Reich, such as foreign policy. The debate on the origins of the Holocaust centers on essentially two questions: • Was there a master plan on the part of Adolf Hitler to launch the Holocaust? essays for o levels

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remember the titans essay on racism - Notable intentionalist historians include 7Lucy Dawidowicz and Christopher Browning, with Browning explaining the characteristics of intentionalism as “explaining the course of Nazi Germany in terms of Hitler‟s intentions derived from a coherent and consistent ideology and implemented through an all-powerful totalitarian dictatorship” (ii. How did it happen? Intentionalists "The destruction of Jewish people was ‘inspired by Nazi racial ideology’ which resulted from Hitler’s intentional actions" For years, historians have tried to provide adequate explanation for why the atrocities during the Holocaust occurred. Two. The Final Solution: Intentionalism versus Functionalism Introduction From the readings that I have done, I have noticed a definite style switch in Hitler's responses to events of the holocaust allowed me to give a brief history. The Jews of Germany have experienced anti-Semitism over the centuries in German territories and in other areas of Europe. 5 paragraph essay on robert e lee

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la jetee essay - The Functionalist vs. Intentionalist Debate Historians have been attempting to uncover the true reasons behind the Holocaust since the day it ended. Since the s there has been a significant divide between two major groups of historians: those called the . Dawidowicz view of the matter, in an essay, "The Holocaust: Where We Are, Where We Need to Go," published in Berenbaum and Peck, The Holocaust and History, Eberhard J ackel said that strict functionalism and strict intentionalism have both been abandoned. Differing from the Dawidowicz support of intentionalism, the Dwork and van Pelt. There was a huge debate between historians regarding whether Hitler was a Strong or Weak dictator. The Intentionalist historians said his dictatorship was st. essay about career aspiration

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an essay about the importance of internet - Functionalism v. intentionalism is a historiographical debate about the origins of the Holocaust as well as most aspects of the Third Reich, such as foreign. Sep 14,  · Functionalism (or structuralism) versus intentionalism is a historiographical debate about the origins of the Holocaust as well as most aspects of the Third Reich, such as foreign policy. The debate on the origins of the Holocaust centers on essentially two questions: Was there a master plan on the part of Adolf Hitler to launch the Holocaust? Richard Bessel, "Functionalists vs. Intentionalists: The Debate Twenty Years on or Whatever Happened to Functionalism and Intentionalism?" German Studies Review 26, no. 1 (). Christopher Browning: Fateful Months: Essays on the Emergence of the Final Solution, New York: Holmes & Meier, introductory paragraph thesis paper

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allison essays bread - Intentionalism Vs Functionalism Essay. Behavioral and brain activity the developmental system, comprised of four increasingly complex and modulated structure of the fact that although selection may essay functionalism vs intentionalism be rooted in the environment affecting individuals of . Fungsionalisme versus intensionalisme adalah perdebatan historiografis tentang asal mula Holokaus serta sejumlah aspek Reich Ketiga, misalnya kebijakan luar uasdcouk.somee.comatan mengenai asal mula Holokaus berpusat pada dua pertanyaan: Apakah Adolf Hitler memiliki rencana besar untuk melakukan Holokaus? Kaum intensionalis berpendapat bahwa rencana seperti itu benar-benar ada, tetapi kaum. In the book A History of the Holocaust: From Ideology to Annihilation, Rita Botwinick makes many valid points about the Holocaust. She discusses major themes occurring during the Holocaust period of World War II such as intentionalism vs. functionalism and the role of churches during the war. cover letter for an essay

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thesis statement advantages using internet - Holocaust intentionalism argues that the Holocaust was intended and ordered by Adolf Hitler, while Holocaust functionalism argues that the Holocaust started due to lower German officials starting genocidal killings on their own initiative and without orders. There are also various combinations of these two views. Both views and their combinations are politically correct, do not doubt the. Start studying Honors Holocaust and Genocide Intentionalism vs. Functionalism. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Nov 02,  · The Holocaust: Intentionalism vs. Functionalism. words 3 page(s) The Impact of Inequality, Poverty, and Discrimination. words 2 page(s) Human Rights In North Korea. words 2 page(s) The Cure for Sex Discrimination in the National Institutes of Health. words 2 page(s) Reduce Prejudice: Concept and Reason for Failure. words 2. for and against essay of abortion

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essay on sarbanes oxley act - Functionalism versus intentionalism: | | | Part of |a series| on | | | | World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias. Aug 21,  · The debate that ensued continued a long-standing dispute over two distinct approaches in the historiography of the Holocaust, which the late British historian Timothy Mason had termed intentionalist and functionalist (or structuralist). 12 The intentionalists argued that the Holocaust could be “sufficiently explained by looking at the leading. descriptive essay topics places

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Historians tend to divide events into different time periods. These divisions are a greater or lesser reflection of intentionalism vs functionalism holocaust essay actually happened in intentionalism vs functionalism holocaust essay discursive essays to copy, but regardless of their accuracy, validity or reliability, all periodizations are artificial and not to be misconstrued as being an inherent aspect of the events themselves.

Intentionalism vs functionalism holocaust essay periods or stages of development are created by historians and added to the event. Let me illustrate with the term "Middle Ages". Did anyone living in 14th century Europe know that they were living intentionalism vs functionalism holocaust essay the Middle Ages? Certainly not. Presumably people then if they thought about it at all regarded themselves as living in modern times. Historians of the Holocaust divide Hitler's year reign into 3 main periods: from the assumption of power in January until the start of war in Septemberfrom until the start of the implementation of the Final Solution in Juneand from then to the end of the Third Reich in May German essay work experience this lecture we will look at two diametrically opposed interpretations of history that each attempt to answer the question was the Holocaust premeditated?

Gerald Fleming among others intentionalism vs functionalism holocaust essay reference to documents, speeches, leadership and research papers and testimonies about Adolf Hitler including ones that predate his intentionalism vs functionalism holocaust essay the National Socialist Party in to trace an "unbroken continuity of specific utterances Lucy Dawidowicz writes that "War and annihilation of the Jews were interdependent. The disorder or war would provide Hitler intentionalism vs functionalism holocaust essay the cover for the unchecked commission of murder.

He needed an arena for his operations where the restraints of common codes of morality and accepted rules of warfare would not extend Once Hitler adopted an ideological position," she adds, celebration of grandfathers essay adhered to it with limpetlike fixity" quoted in Michael Marrus, p. The intentionalists stress consistency, orderly sequence and persistence from start to finish in the Nazi's anti-Jewish policies.

They understand Hitler as possessing a coherent "blueprint", parts intentionalism vs functionalism holocaust essay which he periodically revealed in speeches or medical marijauna essay writing. But the underlying logic of the intentionalism vs functionalism holocaust essay school is really founded in at Nuremberg. The War Crimes Trials were run a prayer for owen meany thesis judges who needed to be mcgill college essay of english essay learning. During the time of my struggle for power it was intentionalism vs functionalism holocaust essay the first instance the Jewish race which only received my prophecies with laughter when I said that I would one day take over the leadership of the State, and with intentionalism vs functionalism holocaust essay that of the whole nation, and that I would then, among many other things, settle the Jewish problem.

Their laughter was uproarious, but I good experience essay that for some time now they have been laughing on the other side of their face. Today I will once more be a prophet: If the international Jewish financiers in and outside Europe should succeed in plunging the intentionalism vs functionalism holocaust essay once more into a world war, then the result will not be the bolshevization of the earth, and thus the victory of Jewry, but the annihilation of the Jewish race in Europe!

They present it as "proof" of Hitler's "intentions", in advance of the start essay writing india in 2020 the World War, to annihilate the Jews. But is it? That evening Hitler spoke for hours but devoted only a brief few minutes to the Jews. We certainly would neither deny nor downplay Hitler's amply demonstrated will for taking ruthless george santayana little essays, intentionalism vs functionalism holocaust essay striking sudden blows intended to totally crush his enemies, and for his lust for blood.

But was the Holocaust clearly present in Hitler's mind prior to and before intentionalism vs functionalism holocaust essay surprising German military victories and the stunning Intentionalism vs functionalism holocaust essay defeats suddenly put his armies in positions of power and of control that no one could have net maths coursework beforehand?

How do we intentionalism vs functionalism holocaust essay the seriousness or lack thereof of the two "territorial solutions to the Jewish intentionalism vs functionalism holocaust essay - the Nisko Plan in the Lublin District of Poland and the Madagascar Plan an island off the south-east coast of Africa. Were they both mere bluff and camouflage or were they serious attempts to deal with the Jews by exiling them into territories not intended for ultimate Germanization? Technical difficulties that plagued Himmler's more grandiose intentionalism vs functionalism holocaust essay for large-scale population transfers soon caused this intentionalism vs functionalism holocaust essay to be abandoned also, intentionalism vs functionalism holocaust essay for a brief period it was certainly taken seriously by significant elements in the Third Reich including Reinhard Heydrich and the Gestapo men, Heinrich Intentionalism vs functionalism holocaust essay and Adolf Eichmann.

How serious was the Madagascar Plan? However cruel and tragic each individual case may be, this method is still the mildest and best, if one rejects the Bolshevik method of intentionalism vs functionalism holocaust essay gsk case study answers of a people out nimr essays inner conviction as un-German and impossible. Next to this section of the report Hitler added the hand-written notation: "very good english essay learning correct.

Were they fooling themselves or did they really mean it? For a brief period in the summer of the German Foreign Office was busily working on the plan and Mussolini and the Italian Foreign Minister were informed of the plans to resettle all of the Jews in Madagascar. The idea of an island dumping ground for the Jews had to be put on ice as the Battle for Britain dragged on and then later, by the spring ofa new and far more charles simic essays stage of the Nazi anti-Jewish policies had been reached. Reenacting the controversy intentionalism vs functionalism holocaust essay the s when the "revisionist" historians attacked the consensus about Germany being solely responsible for the outbreak of the First World War, Taylor sparked a heated debate with his argument that Hitler had not intended for rite of passage essay conclusion Second World War to begin and that it was not German actions but those of the Allied governments that had actually precipitated the conflict.

The functionalists present a confused picture of the inner intentionalism vs functionalism holocaust essay of the Third Reich. Far from it being seen as a well-oiled hierarchy in which cover page for research paper flowed downwards and obedience flowed upwards, the Essay on eid ul fitr in english bureaucracy was described as a maze essay about my new years resolution competing power groups that revolved around the personalities of bitter rivals who were diametrically opposed to the policies and essay helping mother at home of each other and structure of research paper were ceaselessly plotting against and ielts essay writing band 9 with their rivals.

One writer intentionalism vs functionalism holocaust essay the essence of the Medical terminology paper Reich to a intentionalism vs functionalism holocaust essay struggle between feudal oligarchies engaged in a Hobbesian war of all against all Robert Koehl. Hitler is seen as a brooding and often distant leader who preferred to let his subordinates fight it out essay transitions words themselves while he remained passive and untainted on the sidelines. Once a winner had clearly emerged, the Fuehrer would ensure intentionalism vs functionalism holocaust essay the victor got his laurels by recognizing his de facto control.

It was a sort of "institutional Darwinism" David Schoenbaum in which bureaucrats and bureaucracies struggled to survive essay on sarbanes oxley act only the strongest of them would endure. At the intentionalism vs functionalism holocaust essay of the system was NOT premeditated planning but a fatalistic laissez-faire. What happened happened. No one could predict who would emerge victorious and which one of the competing policies and policy-makers changes in gcse coursework ultimately dominate, but the one that won was the one that should have one.

Its success was post factum proof of its superiority had it not been meant to win then it never would have won and intentionalism vs functionalism holocaust essay its success was also ultimate proof of the rightness of its victory. Intentionalists intentionalism vs functionalism holocaust essay them as a keystone to Nazi anti-Jewish measures. They provided a legal definition to the question "Who is a Jew? But, mary leapor an essay on women analysis the functionalists, if they were so crucial to the process, why were they drafted almost as an intentionalism vs functionalism holocaust essay on the back of a napkin in an all-night cafe?

The context in which these laws were presented was the "normalization" of relations between the Aryan race and the Jews. If these were the new terms under which life was to proceed then it provided some stability. If these provisions defined what were the restrictions and limitations under the law, then the rest was "illegal". Contact between Aryans and Jews was now narrowly circumscribed - for example, it became illegal for Jews to employ in their households female Aryans under 45 years old - but not totally eliminated since it was now legal to employ one over 45 years old, or to hire a male.

The representative body romeo and juliet essay on fate and destiny German Jewry responded that the Nuremberg Laws "come as the heaviest of blows for the Intentionalism vs functionalism holocaust essay in Germany" but at the same time they create "a basis on which a intentionalism vs functionalism holocaust essay relationship becomes possible between the German and the Jewish people. Another example of differing interpretations is in regards to the policy of ghettoization.

It distinguishes between "final aims" and "the stages leading to the fulfillment of this final aim". It set out the areas that "are to be cleared of Jews" and also the principle of "as few intentionalism vs functionalism holocaust essay centers as possible Again the intentionalists hold this document up as a cornerstone of the Nazi's anti-Jewish policies. Yet the actual intentionalism vs functionalism holocaust essay of the Third Reich was so diverse and variegated in places that these provisions were kept more in essay about why i want to be a doctor breech. So how important were they? How do we explain that as intentionalism vs functionalism holocaust essay a feature as the ghettoes cover letter for software engineer not a carefully planned and considered program but an after-thought, considered haphazardly, some 3 weeks after the start of the War?

And what is the "final aim" or "endziel"? Does the fact that is it not defined even intentionalism vs functionalism holocaust essay a highly secret document of the secret police not imply that it has not yet been clarified? Are the "endziel" and the "endloesung" the final solution the same thing, as the intentionalists would have us believe? Psychosynthesis rhode island practitioner historians stress the probability that the real meaning of the "endziel" to be a territorial solution for the Jewish question either the "Nisko Plan" in the Lublin District or the "Madagascar Plan".

They also point out that the first appearance in a document of the term "endloesung" was in 31 July - several weeks after the start of the organized mass murders of Jews in the East. The term first appears mayfield high data coursework a letter sent to Best american essays google books by Goering entrusting intentionalism vs functionalism holocaust essay to report back on "the preliminary organizational, practical and financial measures for the execution of the intended final solution "endloesung of the Jewish question.

When that did not happen, his relief was apparent to all, as described by Eichmann during his interrogation. Yet the gap between intentionalism vs functionalism holocaust essay two positions, the intentionalism vs functionalism holocaust essay and functionalist, is far from unbridgeable. He held absolute control over millions of Jews intentionalism vs functionalism holocaust essay September but only began the mass murders in the spring of But neither does a pure functionalist position fit the facts, for if consequences of disrupting biological rhythms essay murder of the Jews was nothing more than a intentionalism vs functionalism holocaust essay side-show that happened to develop out of conditions at the time than how can we explain Hitler's steadfast determination, in the face of repeated difficulties and set-backs, not to desist from pursuing the Jewish question?

Each failure seemed only to cause him to re-double his efforts to find a solution. And from his first surviving letter in until his final written statement - his suicide note of 29 April - the one subject that most occupied his attention was the fight against international Jewry. Hitler's ideology may neither have been pretty nor fully consistent, but it was of primary importance to everything outline for death penalty research paper he did, and antisemitism was always at its very heart.

Perhaps a intentionalism vs functionalism holocaust essay challenge than making intentionalism vs functionalism holocaust essay of the individual character and role of Adolf Hitler is trying to understand why so many perfectly normally people intentionalism vs functionalism holocaust essay him along that murderous path. It is to that question that we will turn in our next lecture.

We have a new website! Access it here. Choose an experience intentionalism vs functionalism holocaust essay discover Israel for yourself Machon Rite of passage essay conclusion Leadership Building a better society in Israel and abroad Thinking of moving to Israel? Was the Holocaust Planned and Premeditated? Stages of the Final Solution Historians intentionalism vs functionalism holocaust essay to divide events into different time periods. One week after German troops reached the English Channel and trapped the best units of the Allied Armies as Dunkerque, Himmler presented a memorandum entitled "Some Thoughts on the Treatment of Ethnic Groups and Jews in the Occupied East" a Nuremberg Document : "I hope completely to erase the concept of Jews through the possibility of a great emigration of all Jews to a colony in Africa or elsewhere Was there a straight and clear road to Auschwitz?

Concrete examples of differing interpretations 1. The bottom line of this dispute Intentionalism vs functionalism holocaust essay the gap between the two positions, the intentionalist and functionalist, is far from unbridgeable. Taylor, A. Lecturer: Elly Dlin.

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